Refers to the unequal distribution of and access to information and communication technologies, as well as the unequal participation in the knowledge society as afforded by the use of communication technologies. Patterns of inequality can be associated with social class, gender,  economic status, and geographic areas among other factors. The concept of ‘digital divide’ has been studied extensively and evolved from an initial meaning associated strictly with physical access to technology, to a more elaborate meaning in which associations are drawn with patterns of social inequality and social exclusion on virtue of racial, ethnic, and economic differences.